The Sports Gene
In high school, I wondered whether the Jamaican Americans who made our track team so successful might carry some special speed gene from their tiny island. In college, I ran against Kenyans, and wondered whether endurance genes might have traveled with them from East Africa. At the same time, I began to notice that a training group on my team could consist of five men who run next to one another, stride for stride, day after day, and nonetheless turn out five entirely different runners. How could this be?
We all knew a star athlete in high school. The one who made it look so easy. He was the starting quarterback and shortstop; she was the all-state point guard and high-jumper. Naturals. Or were they?
The debate is as old as physical competition. Are stars like Usain Bolt, Michael Phelps, and Serena Williams genetic freaks put on Earth to dominate their respective sports? Or are they simply normal people who overcame their biological limits through sheer force of will and obsessive training? The truth is far messier than a simple dichotomy between nature and nurture. In the decade since the sequencing of the human genome, researchers have slowly begun to uncover how the relationship between biological endowments and a competitor’s training environment affects athleticism. Sports scientists have gradually entered the era of modern genetic research.
In this controversial and engaging exploration of athletic success, Sports Illustrated senior writer David Epstein tackles the great nature vs. nurture debate and traces how far science has come in solving this timeless riddle. He investigates the so-called 10,000-hour rule to uncover whether rigorous and consistent practice from a young age is the only route to athletic excellence. Along the way, Epstein dispels many of our perceptions about why top athletes excel. He shows why some skills that we assume are innate, like the bullet-fast reactions of a baseball or cricket batter, are not, and why other characteristics that we assume are entirely voluntary, like an athlete’s will to train, in fact have important genetic components.
This subject necessarily involves digging deep into sensitive topics like race and gender. Epstein explores controversial questions such as:
1. Are black athletes genetically predetermined to dominate both sprinting and distance running, and are their abilities influenced by Africa’s geography?
2. Are there genetic reasons to separate male and female athletes in competition?
3. Should we test the genes of young children to determine if they are destined for stardom?
4. Can genetic testing determine who is at risk of injury, brain damage, or even death on the field?
Reviews and Praise
“In The Sports Gene David Epstein blows up the notion that 10,000 hours is all that is required for dominance in a sport and reveals the true complexity behind excellence.”
—DARYL MOREY, Houston Rockets general manager; cofounder of the MIT Sloan Sports Analytics Conference
“There has been nothing like this: a strong yet accessible review of the science and genetics of sports wrapped in personal stories. It will cause readers of all stripes to question their assumptions about just what it takes to become an elite athlete.”
—STEPHEN M. ROTH, exercise physiologist and director of the Functional Genomics Lab, University of Maryland
“Truly a groundbreaking work, contemporary sports journalism at its best. After reading Epstein’s superb book—by turns a travelogue, highly readable primer on sports science, and string of who knew? anecdotes—you will never watch sports the same way again.”
— L. JON WERTHEIM, coauthor of Scorecasting
“Step by surprising step, David Epstein takes our hand, grips our mind, and leads us deeper and deeper into the fascinating jungle of sports and genetics . . . until we finally begin to see the miracle we’ve been watching in our stadiums and on our TV screens all our lives.”
—GARY SMITH, Sports Illustrated writer and four-time National Magazine Award winner
“David Epstein offers the definitive account of what does and does not make an athlete elite. By myth-busting conventional thinking and offering new insights, Epstein has created a must-read for athletes, parents, coaches, and anyone who wants to know what it takes to be great.”
— GEORGE DOHRMANN, Pulitzer Prize winner and author of Play Their Hearts Out